mirai malware analysis

X-Force researchers have observed Mirai and its variants dropping additional malware payloads onto infected devices, with cryptocurrency miners leading the way. Mirai botnet operators traditionally went after consumer-grade IoT devices, such as internet-connected webcams and baby monitors. For s tart ers they could do away with default credentials. Mirai is a piece of nasty IoT malware that scans for insecure routers, cameras, DVRs, and other Internet of Things devices which are still using their default passwords and then add them into a botnet network, which is then used to launch DDoS attacks on websites and Internet infrastructure. This binary starts by port scanning IP addresses in the Internet on port 8081/tcp. Devices and networks are where cybercriminals go to find data and financial profit. The install base of connected devices is expected to reach more than 31 billion devices by 2020. Mirai is a piece of software that is used to form a malicious botnet; a large number of connected devices (bots) that can be controlled to attack others on the Internet. Fast-forward to 2019, and Mirai’s evolution is gravitating toward changes in enterprise IT operations, extending its attack surface and bringing new zero-day exploits to consumer-level devices: These developments suggest that the Mirai malware and its variants are evolving with their operator’s intents, delivering a variety of exploits and increasingly aimed against enterprise environments. Starting with a … The bash script is very long and it starts with these lines: All the files are being downloaded from 134.209.72.171 that is an IP address from Digital Ocean in US related with a lot of malware downloads. It primarily targets online consumer devices such as IP … In this case, the threat actors used the malware.mips file to exploit a known vulnerability in Netgear routers that allowed them to gain administrative access to the device. Two new vulnerabilities were leveraged as attack vectors to deliver Mirai. Each of these IP were attacked. Historically, simpler internet of things (IoT) devices such as routers and CCTV cameras were most affected, but recent IBM X-Force data indicates that threat actors are increasingly targeting enterprise devices. While IoT malware is rampant, the most popular versions rely on automated attacks that can be prevented with the right security practices and controls in place. That’s one way to make IoT devices browse to an infection zone and fetch a malicious payload in an automated way. You should head over there for a deep dive, but here are some of the high points: Mirai … The C&C is unencrypted and has a very frequent connection to a new server in Digital Ocean. At its core, Mirai is a self-propagating worm, that is, it’s a malicious program that replicates itself by finding, attacking and infecting vulnerable IoT devices. The following image shows the content. A detailed analysis of the Avira Protection Labs findings can be read here. Gafgyt historically targeted Linux-based devices, unlike Mirai, which targets a broader set of devices. Upon successful exploitation, the wget utility is invoked to download a shell script from the malware infrastructure. Recently, I started working with a National Security Information Exchange working group to analyze the Mirai malware and the DDoS botnets that are powered by it. This can happen when an application passes malicious user-supplied input via forms, cookies or HTTP headers to a system shell. The bots are a group of hijacked loT devices via the Mirai malware. For enterprises that are rapidly adopting both IoT technology and cloud architecture, insufficient security controls could expose the organization to elevated risk, calling for the security committee to conduct an up-to-date risk assessment. The Aposemat project is funded by Avast Software. A threat actor group called Shaolin, for example, has been primarily targeting consumer brand routers, specifically Netgear and D-Link routers. The background before Fbot Mirai variant Fbot is one of the Mirai’s variants, and Mirai is the Linux malware that originally has been detected in August 2016 by the same team who wrote the last analysis mentioned above. In the covid sample, the attacker did little to obfuscate the code. Dubious Claims of Responsibility Over the weekend, various actors have spoken out to claim responsibility for … The graph below represents the percentage of all observed Mirai attacks by month for the last 12 months, as monitored by X-Force research. This malware is detected as a Mirai variant in most antivirus programs in VirusTotal as shown in the following image: However, the malware is a shell code that downloads and runs different binary files, suggesting that it is more of a downloader than a specific malware. However, this appears to be changing as attacker motivations evolve, likely owing to the rise of IoT devices for innovation and efficiency in the enterprise. This is the exact same tactic attackers use to deliver new Mirai-like botnet malware. In this example, if the host were vulnerable to command injection, this command would have downloaded and executed a file called malware.mips. Mirai activity nearly doubled between the first quarter of 2018 and the first quarter of 2019. The popularity of the IoT is forecast to proliferate both in business and consumer spaces as the IoT market is on pace to grow to $3 trillion by 2026. For one thing, new vulnerabilities allow threat actors to frequently update exploits, and slow patch implementation allows attackers to exploit vulnerabilities that have already been patched. identify, classify and remove malware from a compromised system. On large networks, IoT devices are sometimes deployed as shiny new equipment but are then neglected, missing regular maintenance such as monitoring and updating firmware, and left with nothing but default passwords as a layer of protection from external intrusion. This port scan only found 5 IP addresses with this port open during the 8hs of the complete attack. It primarily targets online consumer devices such as IP cameras and home routers. Figure 1: Mirai botnet activity over the last 12 months (Source: IBM X-Force). The expansion of the Mirai family of payloads beyond simple reverse shells is worrisome because it allows threat actors to quickly download any number of malicious files onto a large number of IoT devices. IBM X-Force researchers observed a sharp uptick in Mirai activity, with a spiking starting in November 2018. If passwords cannot be changed, segregate the IoT network and place mitigating controls around these device networks. This IP had more than 11 malware files downloaded from IP, but only this bash scrip as communicating file. Tracking the Hide and Seek Botnet. Although this particular example cites a well-known threat vector that has already been patched, it continues to be effective for two main reasons. This is a sample of the traffic: This scanning behavior seems to be weird because: It uses the same source port for all its connections, The sequence number is reused for all the SYN. Mirai is a worm-like family of malware that infected IoT devices and corralled them into a DDoS botnet. “Barely a month since discovering a new Miori variant, we found another new Mirai sample through our research.” reads the analysis published by Trend Micro.“Compared to previous variants, however, we found this sample distinct because the cybercriminals placed the command and control server in the Tor network for anonymity.”. Figure 3: Industries affected by Mirai (Source: IBM X-Force). The .mips file extension provides an indication that the attacker is targeting a device that is operating on MIPS architecture. A successful command injection attack can allow an attacker to issue arbitrary commands within a vulnerable web application environment. Source Code Analysis Mirai is a piece of malware that infects IoT devices and is used as a launch platform for DDoS attacks. The complete traffic of this capture can be found on https://mcfp.felk.cvut.cz/publicDatasets/IoTDatasets/CTU-IoT-Malware-Capture-49-1/. The graph below represents the top five industries targeted by Mirai variants based on X-Force research telemetry. There is an increasing emergence of Mirai-like botnets mimicking the original infection technique and aiming to infect ever more prevalent IoT devices. The prevalence of Mirai underscores the utility threat actors perceive it to have and their ability to leverage its capabilities in targeting IoT devices, exploiting vulnerabilities and creating powerful DDoS attacks. Mirai’s C&C (command and control) code is coded in Go, while its bots are coded in C. Like most malware in this category, Mirai is built for two core purposes: Mirai is an IoT malware that can turn devices into zombies, similar to a botnet. Mirai was discovered by MalwareMustDie!, a white-hat security research group, in August 2016. The histogram of time between connections clearly shows this difference: Most importantly the content of the C&C seems to be not encrypted, opening the door for a deeper analysis. Have suggested that it is frequently found in enterprise environments for convenient remote download and administration of! Trends shows that Mirai ’ s evolution continues the download of subsequent payloads security... A remote authentication bypass of resources spent in only one malware sample D-Link routers external... Analyst with IBM X-Force researchers have observed Mirai attacks by month for last... Payload in an automated way indication that the attacker could modify the firmware plant... Devices since the Mirai botnet code be compromised via this common tactic alone network! Input via forms, cookies or HTTP headers to a cloud environment could be.. Traffic of this thesis is to investigate Mirai, which is responsible for the last 12 months as. 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